All notes with stems facing up are played with the hands and all notes with stems facing down are played with the feet.

All notes with conventional round heads are played on drums and all notes with cross heads are played on cymbals. 

Patterns played with the hands use separate rests from patterns played with the feet. If the length of rest is the same for both hands and feet, one rest is shown across the stave.

 The ‘foot down’ note for closed hi-hat has only been included where necessary or to ensure clarity. The half-open or ‘sloshy’ symbol works in the same way as a sharp or flat sign and continues until the hi-hat pedal is fully opened or closed again. 

 The stave position for crash cymbal can also be used for splash, china or effects cymbals and, where suggested, is abbreviated spl., chi. or FX.

 Prolonging the length of a note or ‘sustain’ only applies to drum kit music theory in a handful of cases (e.g. cymbals, rolls, tied and dotted notes). Everything else can be abbreviated and in many theory exercises, two different ways of notating the same rhythm are shown. In either case, when played on drum kit, the sound of each bar is the same.



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